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Introduction and History of Ceramic Art Blades
- 2019-08-20-

        The appearance of ceramic art blade changed the view of the utility knife industry on materials, we Let's take a look at what is a ceramic tool today?

     Ceramic knives are made from special ceramic raw materials that are non-metallic materials. Due to the control of raw material purity and particle size refinement, various carbides and nitrides are added. , boride and oxides improve their properties, and at the same time improve the fracture toughness through the synergistic action of particles, whiskers, phase transformation, microcracks and several toughening mechanisms, not only improve the bending strength to 0.9~1.0GPa (high It can reach 1.3-1.5GPa), and its fracture toughness and impact resistance are greatly improved. The application range is expanding. It has been expanded from the advanced technology fields such as aerospace to industrial ceramic tools. Used in civil ceramic knives in the past two years, it has appeared in civil ceramic knives. It not only has more sharpness than steel knives, but also has acid and alkali resistance, is non-conductive, and has no chemical reaction to food. It is a typical green product, which can cut meat under freezing conditions. Classes and other foods, cutting fruit does not change color, cut onions are not glare and other characteristics. In addition to being used for general finishing and semi-finishing in the industry, it can also be used for roughing under impact load, and is recognized internationally as the most promising tool for improving production efficiency.

     Ceramic knives with alumina (Al2O3) zirconia (ZrO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4), etc., with high efficiency, long service life and good processing quality . In the past, due to its low flexural strength and high brittleness, it has long been used as a finishing tool, accounting for a small proportion of various tool materials. However, in recent years, ceramic tools can process steel, cast iron and alloys at high speeds with cutting speeds of 200 to 1000 m/min. Tool life is several times or even several times higher than that of hard alloys. For example, the RT200 series monolithic ceramic drill bit and ceramic end mill introduced by Guhring of Germany have a finishing cutting speed of 1000m/min. At the same time, its appearance has changed the traditional process concept. With ceramic tools, it can directly replace grinding (or throwing) with hardened parts by car and milling. It can replace multiple processes with a single process, greatly shortening the process flow. It can be used in general car, boring and milling in production, and is more successfully used for precision hole machining. In addition to being used in ordinary machine tools, it can also be effectively used in high-efficiency equipment such as CNC machine tools. Compared with superhard tools such as diamond and CBN (cubic boron nitride), the price of ceramics is relatively low, so some people think: "With the continuous improvement of the performance of modern ceramic tool materials, it will be coated with cemented carbide tools in the future. The superhard tools such as diamond and CBN become the three main tools for high-speed machining.”

     The appearance of ceramic tools:

     A tool is a tool used in machining for machining, also known as a cutting tool. Generalized cutting tools include both tools and abrasive tools. Most of the tools are machine-made, but they are also used by hand. Since the tools used in mechanical manufacturing are basically used to cut metal materials, the term "tool" is generally understood to mean a metal cutting tool. The tool used to cut wood is called a woodworking tool.

    The development of cutting tools plays an important role in the history of human progress. As early as 28 BC to 20 BC, copper knives such as cones, drills, and knives of brass cones and copper had appeared. In the late Warring States period (3rd century BC), copper cutters were made due to the mastery of carburizing technology. The drill bits and saws at the time were somewhat similar to modern flat drills and saws.

    However, the rapid development of the tool was in the late 18th century, accompanied by the development of machines such as steam engines. In 1783, France's Rene first produced a milling cutter. In 1792, the British Mozley made taps and dies. The earliest literature on the invention of twist drills was recorded in 1822, but it was not produced until 1864.

    The tool at that time was made of integral high carbon tool steel with a cutting speed of about 5 m/min. In 1868, the British Mussett made alloy tool steel containing tungsten. In 1898, Taylor and White of the United States invented high speed steel. In 1923, Schletel of Germany invented cemented carbide.

    In the case of alloy tool steel, the cutting speed of the tool is increased to about 8 m/min, and when using high-speed steel, it is more than doubled. When using cemented carbide, It is more than twice as high as high-speed steel, and the surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the workpiece are greatly improved.

     Due to the high price of high speed steel and hard alloy, the tool has a welded and mechanically clamped structure. Between 1949 and 1950, the United States began using indexable inserts on turning tools, and soon applied to milling cutters and other tools. In 1938, the German company Degussa obtained a patent on ceramic knives. In 1972, General Electric Company of the United States produced polycrystalline synthetic diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride inserts. These non-metallic tool materials allow the tool to cut at higher speeds.

    In 1969, the Swedish Sandvik Steel Plant patented the production of titanium carbide coated carbide inserts by chemical vapor deposition. In 1972, Bangsa and Lagrange in the United States developed physical vapor deposition to coat hard surfaces of titanium carbide or titanium nitride on the surface of cemented carbide or high speed steel tools. The surface coating method combines the high strength and toughness of the base material with the high hardness and wear resistance of the surface layer, so that the composite material has better cutting performance.

     History of ceramic knives:

     As early as 1912-1913, alumina ceramic knives have appeared in the UK and Germany ( However, the patent for ceramic knives was obtained in 1938 by the German company Degussa. The application in production began in 1950. Due to its low strength and toughness, it is limited to continuous cutting and finishing in a long period of time, and the cutting speed and feed rate are low. It was not until 1968 that the second generation ceramic tool-composite alumina tool appeared. Compared with the alumina tool, the strength and toughness were significantly improved. It can cut various workpieces at higher speed and larger feed rate. Has been widely used.

     In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the third generation of ceramic tools - silicon nitride ceramic tools appeared. These ceramic knives have higher toughness, impact resistance, high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance than composite alumina knives. The output of ceramic blades in various industrialized countries has grown rapidly.

    China has been mass producing composite alumina blades since the mid-1960s. The current annual production capacity is 14-15 million pieces. Silicon oxide ceramic blades have been studied since the mid-1970s. Due to poor performance, they cannot meet the demand. In recent years, with the deepening of research on the field of high-temperature structural ceramics, the performance of silicon nitride ceramics has been greatly improved. Thus, silicon nitride ceramic tools have developed rapidly in China.